Moctezuma II, ruler of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec Empire during the arrival and conquest of Hernan Cortes.

Tovar, Juan de, circa 1546-circa 1626
Moctezuma II, the Last Aztec King (Reigned 1502–20)
The Tovar Codex, attributed to the 16th-century Mexican Jesuit Juan de Tovar, contains detailed information about the rites and ceremonies of the Aztecs (also known as Mexica). This illustration, from the second section, depicts Moctezuma II, holding a spear or scepter and standing on a reed mat and next to a basketwork throne, wearing a beard and an epaulette of quetzal feathers. Next to him is a crown. Moctezuma II (reigned 1502–20), whose surname was Xocoyotzin or “Bitter Lord,” was the ninth Aztec emperor, the son of Axayácatl and the great grandson of Moctezuma I (also seen as Montezuma I). He surrendered to the Spanish in 1520. The crown is a sign of Moctezuma's sovereignty.

Image Attribution:
John Carter Brown Library, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons